een wereldwijd elektriciteitsnet een oplossing voor veel problemen  GENI es una institución de investigación y educación-enfocada en la interconexión de rejillas de electricidad entre naciones.  ??????. ????????????????????????????????????  nous proposons la construction d’un réseau électrique reliant pays et continents basé sur les ressources renouvelables  Unser Planet ist mit einem enormen Potential an erneuerbaren Energiequellen - Da es heutzutage m` glich ist, Strom wirtschaftlich , können diese regenerativen Energiequellen einige der konventionellen betriebenen Kraftwerke ersetzen.  한국어/Korean  utilizando transmissores de alta potência em áreas remotas, e mudar a força via linha de transmissões de alta-voltagem, podemos alcançar 7000 quilómetros, conectando nações e continentes    
What's Geni? Endorsements Global Issues Library Policy Projects Support GENI
Add news to your site >>

About Us

Electricity for all:
Targets, timetables, instruments

An initiative to make electricity available, accessible and affordable to all:
Proposal for a global debate.

Executive Summary

Universal access to essential services such as energy, water and health care was, together with the theme of public-private partnerships, the central issue of the World Summit for Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg, South Africa in 2002. In particular, the awareness has been constantly growing that access to electricity plays a crucial role in achieving the objectives of sustainable development. Providing electricity to all citizens of the world who are deprived to access appears as the breaking-point of poverty alleviation. Every single one of the UN Millennium Development Goals — from the halving of the number of people living in poverty to better education and improved health — requires access to electricity as a necessary prerequisite.

Currently, one third of humanity is still without access to electricity, thereby foregoing the basic amenities of electric lighting, communication or refrigeration. Without electric pumps, in some regions, access to clean water is very difficult; without electricity there is no refrigeration, no radio, no television, no internet; without electricity there is no mechanic energy for improving labor productivity or allowing for the creation of small and medium-sized enterprises.

Poverty and non-access to electricity are closely correlated. Establishing a correlation, however, does not provide the sense of causality. Is poverty the consequence of non-access to electricity? Or is the access to electricity the result of improved income and economic affluence? Causalities work in effect both ways. The central idea which is proposed in this study is that access to electricity might be the breaking point of the vicious cycle of poverty. Not only electricity supply is at the crossroads of economic, social and environmental progress. Not only electricity is a common source of other major basic services, but progress is measurable in clear-cut quantitative terms. Whereas alternative criteria of access to other forms of basic services — such as nutrition, public health, education, clean water, etc. — is measurable in qualitative terms, and do not establish a strict divide between "haves" and the "have-nots", there exists a clear-cut and visible divide with regard to access to electricity between those who have access and those who do not have.

The guiding spirit of Initiative Electricity for All is that everything that can be measured can be improved. In the field of access to electricity, quantification is achievable and progress is clearly measurable. Goals are understandable, focus can be targeted, timetables can be set up, efficient policy instruments can be devised.

This paper combines in-depth economic, commercial and technical expertise in order to provide a solid quantitative framework for action. In addition, it provides a discussion of financing issues and an overview of existing and proposed public-private partnerships to promote global access to electricity. Its main results are the following:

  • Currently, more than 2.1 billion people or 425 millions households are still without access to electricity.

  • Poverty and lack of access to electricity are intertwined. 80% of the population deprived of access to electricity are located in South Asia (40% electrification rate) and sub-Saharan Africa (20% electrification rate). Non-access to electrification is centered on rural areas in the developing world.

  • The basic consumption needs — evaluated at 1 kWh per family per day — require the provision of additional power-generation capacity of 60 GW corresponding to less than 2% of currently installed global capacity.

  • The cost of providing this additional capacity (including transportation and distribution infrastructure) with various technical options (connection to the grid, decentralized grids, solar home-equipment, etc.) amounts to about Euro 180 billion. Spread over a 25 year time frame, the cost of providing this capacity would amount to slightly over Euro 7 billion per year.

  • Due to population growth, providing access to the people currently deprived of electricity is not enough. It is necessary also to supply population increases resulting from demographic growth in poor regions of the developing world. With a demographic growth rate estimated at 1.5% per year, that amounts to an increase of 1 billion people until 2027, equivalent to the number of human beings who will get access to electricity during the same period under " business as usual" trends.

  • While a substantial proportion of the investments required by electrification will be covered — like in any commercial enterprise — by customer receipts, this will not be possible for the entire amount as long as the vicious cycle of poverty is not broken.

  • Public-private partnerships are thus needed to share investment risk and enable widespread electrification. Such partnerships will involve the international electricity industry as well as national government agencies and international funding organizations: rural electrification agencies, perequation funds, multilateral and bilateral development aid, concessional loans, etc. However, they will also need to involve NGOs and local small and medium-sized enterprises for their commitment and local expertise.

  • The decisive contribution of electricity to economic, social and environmental improvement justifies public participation. Funds for leveraging investment, however, need to be used wisely. General subsidies for consumption lead to inefficiency and waste. Access to electricity, not consumption, should be promoted wherever possible.

  • The figures that have been proposed in the present study have been gathered from public sources as well as from the experience that comes with being a electricity provider with a certain amount of in-house technical. scientific and commercial competence. Of course, the targets and timetables can be challenged by more elaborate studies and are open to debate.

  • Everything that can be measured can be improved. We might also say "improvement needs measurement". If "Electricity for All" is to proceed from proposal to an objective for global human solidarity, quantified targets and timetables need to be identified. In presenting these results, the authors hope to provide an invitation for an open dialogue without preconceived notions about the issues with all public and private stakeholders on the vital issue that is "Electricity for All".

©Copyright 2002, 2nd edition - October 2002.
published by EDF/DPRI - Electricite de France, Direction de la Prospective et des Relations Internaionales, a member of e7
for the World Summit for Sustainable Development

EDF, P O Box 417, Paris 75008 France. Editor, Christian Stoffaës

Updated: 2016/06/30

If you speak another language fluently and you liked this page, make a contribution by translating it! For additional translations check out (Voor vertaling van Engels tot Nederlands) (For oversettelse fra Engelsk til Norsk)
(Для дополнительных переводов проверяют )