President: Hu Jintao (since March 2003)
Premier: Wen Jinbao (since March 2003)
Population (July 2002E): 1.3 billion
Location/Size: Eastern Asia/3.7 million square miles (9.6 million square kilometers, slightly smaller than the United States)
Major Cities: Beijing (capital), Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Shenyang, Wuhan, Chengdu, Hong Kong
Languages: Mandarin (official), many local dialects
Ethnic Groups: Han Chinese (92%); Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, others (8%)
Religion: Officially atheist; Daoism, Buddhism, Muslim (2-3%); Christian (1%)
Defense (8/98): Army (2.1 million), Navy (260,000), Air Force (470,000), reserves (1.2 million), People's Armed Police (1 million)
Exchange Rate (6/25/03): US$1 = 8.3 Yuan/Renminbi
Gross Domestic Product (2002E): $1.24 trillion (2003F): $1.34 trillion
Real GDP Growth Rate (2002E): 8.0% (2003F): 7.1%
Inflation Rate (2003F): 0.6%
Current Account Surplus (2003F): $8.0 billion
Major Trading Partners: Japan, United States, European Union, South Korea, Taiwan
Merchandise Exports (2003F): $442.1 billion
Merchandise Imports (2003F): $399.2 billion
Merchandise Trade Surplus (2003F): $42.9 billion
Major Export Products: Light industrial and textile products, mineral fuels, heavy manufactures, agricultural goods
Major Import Products: Machinery, steel, chemicals, miscellaneous manufactures, industrial materials, grain
External Debt (2003F): $185.3 billion
Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/03E): 18.3 billion barrels
Oil Production (2002E): 3.39 million barrels per day (bbl/d)
Oil Consumption (2002E): 5.26 million bbl/d
Net Oil Imports (2002E): 1.87 million bbl/d
Crude Oil Refining Capacity (1/1/03E): 4.5 million bbl/d
Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/03E): 53.3 trillion cubic feet (Tcf)
Natural Gas Production (2001E): 1.07 Tcf
Natural Gas Consumption (2001E): 1.07 Tcf
Recoverable Coal Reserves (1/1/96E): 126.2 billion short tons
Coal Production (2001E): 1.49 billion short tons
Coal Consumption (2001E): 1.38 billion short tons
Electric Generation Capacity (1/1/01E): 318 GW (237 GW thermal; 79 GW hydro; 2 GW nuclear)
Electricity Generation (2001E): 1,420 billion kilowatthours (1,139 conventional thermal; 263 hydro; 17 nuclear)
Statistical note: All data reported here exclude Hong Kong, a former British colony which reverted to China on July 1, 1997.
Minister of Land and Natural Resources: Tian Fengshan
Minister of Water Resources: Wang Shucheng
Total Energy Consumption (2001E): 39.7 quadrillion Btu (9.8% of world total energy consumption)
Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (2001E): 831.7 million metric tons of carbon (12.7% of world carbon emissions)
Per Capita Energy Consumption (2001E): 28.8 million Btu (vs. U.S. value of 341.8 million Btu)
Per Capita Carbon Emissions (2001E): 0.65 metric tons of carbon (vs. U.S. value of 5.5 metric tons of carbon)
Energy Intensity (2001E): 35,469 Btu/$1995 (vs. U.S. value of 10,736 Btu/$1995)**
Carbon Intensity (2001E): 0.75 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1995 (vs. U.S. value of 0.17 metric tons/thousand $1995)**
Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (2001E): Oil (25.8%), Natural Gas (3.1%), Coal (64.0%)
Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (2001E): Oil (21.1%), Natural Gas (2.2%), Coal (76.8%)
Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Non-Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (ratified January 5th, 1993). Signatory to the Kyoto Protocol (signed May 29th, 1998 - not yet ratified).
Major Environmental Issues: Air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from the overwhelming use of high-sulfur coal as a fuel, producing acid rain which is damaging forests; water shortages experienced throughout the country, particularly in urban areas and in the north; future growth in water usage threatens to outpace supplies; water pollution from industrial effluents; much of the population does not have access to potable water; less than 10% of sewage receives treatment; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species.
Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94 and Wetlands. Has signed but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban.
* The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar, wind, wood and waste electric power. The renewable energy consumption statistic is based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are also based on IEA data.
**GDP based on EIA International Energy Annual 2001
Organization: Coal - China National Local Coal Mines Development Corp., China Northeast & NEI-Mongolia United Coal Co., numerous local state-owned mines and rural collectives; Coal import/exports - China Coal Import and Export Group; Petroleum - China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC, PetroChina is its publicly traded subsidiary), China National Offshore Oil Corp. (CNOOC), China National Oil & Gas Exploration & Development Corp. (CNODC), China National Star Petroleum (Star); China National Petrochemical Corp. (SINOPEC); Oil imports/exports - China National Chemicals Import and Export Corporation (SINOCHEM), China United Petroleum Corporation (China Oil), China United Petrochemical Corp. (UNIPEC); Electric power - China State Power Corp., Huaneng Group, Inc., China National Power Industry Corp. (CNPIC), regional electric power corporations, China National Nuclear Industry Corp., China International Water and Electric Corp. (CWE).; Energy Finance - China National Energy Investment Corp.
Major Producing Oil Fields (2001 Production): Daqing (1.1 MMBD), Shengli (0.5 MMBD), Liaohe (0.3 MMBD)
Major Refineries (1/1/03 Capacity): Fushun (184,800 bbl/d), Maoming (170,700 bbl/d), Qilu (160,700 bbl/d), Gaoqiao (150,600 bbl/d), Dalian (142,600 bbl/d), Yanshan (190,800 bbl/d), Jinling (140,600 bbl/d); Zhenlai (160,700 bbl/d)
Sources for this report include: Asia Pulse; China Daily; Coal Week International; Dow Jones Newswire; Economist Intelligence Unit; Financial Times; Global Insight Asia Economic Outlook; Oil and Gas Journal; Oil Daily; Petroleum Economist; Petroleum Intelligence Weekly; South China Morning Post; U.S. Commerce Department; International Trade Administration -- Country Commercial Guides; U.S. Energy Information Administration; World Gas Intelligence.