Bioenergy Potential in China
Distribution of agricultural residues by province
The unit used in the graph is tce (tonnes of coal equivalent). 1 tce = 29.3 GJ.
Distribution of fuelwood resources by province
The unit used is tce (tonnes of coal
equivalent). 1 tce = 29.3 GJ.
Distribution of animal manure by province
The principal biomass resources in China are: (1) residues from agriculture and forest industries, (2) animal manure from medium and large-scale livestock farms, and (3) municipal solid waste.
Agricultural and forestry residues Agricultural and forestry wastes are the primary bioenergy resource generated in China, as their production is related to the main economic activity of a significant portion of the country. Currently, less than half of these wastes are used for some purpose, such as domestic heating and cooking, fertilizer, animal forage, raw material for paper, etc. The unused fraction of the residues generally exceeds the amount needed to maintain soil quality, and the field-burning of the excess residues constitutes a growing environmental hazard.
A main characteristic of this resource is that it is usually spread across an extensive area, and collection costs, especially for centralized use of these wastes, can be high. Some activities, such as sugarcane processing, involve a concentration of the resource as part of the normal processing activity and offer a clear opportunity for centralized utilization. In general, biomass resources are widely distributed and available in all regions of the country.
Livestock manure China has a long history of raising many species of domestic livestock. There are generally two methods of feeding. The traditional method, natural feeding, is mainly suitable for small-sized farms and families, and for specific animals, such as sheep, horses and ducks. With this feeding method, excrement is scattered in grasslands and pools and thus difficult to collect. Concentrated feeding at large and medium-sized farms for cattle, pigs, sheep and poultry, has increased dramatically in recent years. These livestock are generally reared in pens so that the excrement can be easily collected. The amount of this resource that can be utilized depends on the manure collection efficiency as well as the energy conversion efficiency. The electricity potential is a modest 60.1 TWh.
Disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in China reached nearly 300,000 t/day in 1995 and is expected to continue to grow as China’s economy expands. The energy content of the 1995 level of MSW is about 1230 PJ.
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