President: Johannes Rau (since May 1999)
Chancellor: Gerhard Schroeder (since September 1998)
Independence: January 18, 1871 (reunification of West and East Germany took place on October 3, 1990)
Population (2002E): 83 million
Location/Size: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark/137,821 square miles (slightly smaller than Montana)
Major Cities: Berlin (national capital since 10/3/90), Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Essen, Dortmund, Stuttgart
Ethnic Groups: German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Serbo-Croatian, Italian, Russian, Greek, Polish, Spanish)
Religions: Protestant 38%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 1.7%, unaffiliated or other 26.3%
Defense (8/98): Army, 230,600; Navy, 26,700; Air Force, 76,200 (including conscripts
Finance Minister: Hans Eichel
Exchange Rate (03/12/03): 1 US Dollar = 0.90 Euro
Gross Domestic Product (GDP, nominal, 2002E): $1.98 trillion (2003E): $2.16 trillion
Real GDP Growth Rate (2002E): 0.2% (2003F): 0.5%
Inflation Rate (consumer prices, 2002E): 1.3% (2003E): 1.7%
Unemployment Rate (2002E) 9.8% (2003F): 10.2%
Exports of Goods (2002E): $614 billion
Imports of Goods (2002E): $495 billion
Major Trading Partners (2000): France, U.S., U.K., Italy, Netherlands
Major Export Products (2000): Machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals
Major Import Products (2000): Machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, other finished goods, fuels
Minister of the Interior: Otto Schily
Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/03E): 342 million barrels
Oil Production (2002E): 143,000 barrels per day (bbl/d), of which 69,000 bbl/d was crude oil
Oil Consumption (2002E): 2.71 million bbl/d
Net Oil Imports (2002E): 2.6 million bbl/d
Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/03E): 11.3 trillion cubic feet (Tcf)
Natural Gas Production (2001E): 0.78 Tcf
Natural Gas Consumption (2001E): 3.32 Tcf
Coal Reserves (2001E): 72.8 billion short tons
Coal Production (2001E): 226 million short tons (Mmst)
Coal Consumption (2001E): 265 Mmst
Net Coal Imports (2001E): 39 Mmst
Electric Generation Capacity (2001E): 114 million kilowatts
Electricity Production (2001E): 544.8 billion kilowatt hours
Minister for Environment: Juergen Trittin
Total Energy Consumption (2001E): 14.35 quadrillion Btu* (3.6% of world total energy consumption)
Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (2001E): 223.2 million metric tons of carbon (3.4% of world total carbon emissions)
Per Capita Energy Consumption (2000E): 170.4 million Btu (vs U.S. value of 351 million Btu)
Per Capita Carbon Emissions (2000E): 2.7 metric tons of carbon (vs U.S. value of 5.6 metric tons of carbon)
Energy Intensity (2000E): 5,217 Btu/ $1995 (vs U.S. value of 10,918 Btu/ $1995)**
Carbon Intensity (2000E): 0.8 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1995 (vs U.S. value of 0.17 metric tons/thousand $1995)**
Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (ratified December 9th, 1993). Under the negotiated Kyoto Protocol (signed on April 29th, 1998, but not yet ratified), Germany, as a member of the European Union, has agreed to reduce greenhouse gases 8% below 1990 levels by the 2008-2012 commitment period.
Major Environmental Issues: Emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries and lead emissions from vehicle exhausts (the result of continued use of leaded fuels) contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; heavy pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal.
Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to Conventions on Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling . Has signed, but not ratified, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants.
* The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar, wind, wood and waste electric power. The renewable energy consumption statistic is based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are also based on IEA data.
**GDP based on EIA International Energy Annual 2000.
Major Energy Companies: Oil: Deutsche Shell, Esso, Ruhr Oel; Natural Gas: Ruhrgas, Wintershall/Wingas; Coal: DSK, RAG; Electricity: RWE, Viag, Veba
Major Refineries (crude capacity, bbl/d): Karlsruhe (285,800), Bayernoil (262,000), Schwedt (210,000), Gelsenkirchen (246,000), Leuna (223,000), Wilhelmshaven (220,000), Godorf (162,000), Wesseling (140,000), Ingolstadt (106,000)
Sources for this report include: Arbeitsgeminschaft Energiebilanzen; CIA World Factbook; Dow Jones; Economist Intelligence Unit Views Wire; Energy Intelligence Group; Eni's 2003 World Oil and Gas Review; Financial Times; Global Insight; Global Power Report; International Energy Agency; Mining Journal Ltd; Oil and Gas Journal; Petroleum Intelligence Weekly; Petroleum Economist; Platt's International Coal Report; Platt's Oilgram News; The German Electricity Association; The German Federal Ministry for Economics and Export Control; The German Federal Ministry for Economics and Labor; The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety; The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; U.S. Energy Information Administration; World Gas Intelligence.