President: Sellapan Rama Nathan (since 1999)
Prime Minister: Goh Chok Tong (since 1990)
Senior Minister: Lee Kuan Yew
Independence: August 9, 1965
Population (2002E): 4.5 million
Location/Size: Singapore lies in Southeast Asia, with Peninsular Malaysia to the north, East Malaysia to the east, and Indonesia to the south. The country consists of one main island and 54 islets located approximately 77 miles north of the equator.
Major Cities: Singapore
Language: Chinese, English, Malay, and Tamil
Ethnic Groups: Chinese (77%); Malay (14%); Indian (8%)
Defense (1998): 53,900 total active armed forces (221,000 reservists). Army: 45,000 personnel (210,000 reservists); Navy: 2,900 personnel (3,600 reservists); Air Force: 6,000 personnel (7,500 reservists)
Currency: Singapore dollar
Exchange Rate (11/26/02): 1.77 Singapore dollars = 1 U.S Dollar
Real GDP Growth Rate (2001E): -1.9% (2002E): 2.2%
Inflation Rate (consumer prices) (2001E): 1.0% (2002E): 0.1%
Current Account Balance (2002E): $17.8 billion
Merchandise Trade Balance (2002E): $13.4 billion
Major Exports: Machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, telecommunications equipment, computer equipment, food and live animals, crude rubber, beverages, tobacco, clothing.
Major Imports: Machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum and petroleum products, crude materials, foodstuffs, tobacco, textiles, iron and steel, aircraft.
Top Trading Partners: Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, United States
Total External Debt (2002E): None.
Oil Consumption (2002E): 722,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) (all imported)
Crude Oil Refining Capacity (1/1/02E): 1.3 million bbl/d
Natural Gas Consumption (2000E): 53 billion cubic feet (Bcf) (all imported)
Electric Generation Capacity (1/1/00E): 6.7 gigawatts (all thermal)
Electricity Generation (2000E): 27.9 billion kilowatt hours
Minister of the Environment: Lim Siew Say
Total Energy Consumption (2000E): 1.7 quadrillion Btu* (0.5% of world total energy consumption)
Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (2000E): 31.6 million metric tons of carbon (0.5% of world carbon emissions)
Per Capita Energy Consumption (2000E): 419.1 million Btu (vs. U.S. value of 351.0 million Btu)
Per Capita Carbon Emissions (2000E): 7.9 metric tons of carbon (vs. U.S. value of 5.6 metric tons of carbon)
Energy Intensity (2000E): 14,853 Btu/$1995 (vs U.S. value of 10,918 Btu/$1995)**
Carbon Intensity (2000E): 0.28 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1995 (vs U.S. value of 0.17 metric tons/thousand $1995)**
Sectoral Share of Energy Consumption (1998E): Transportation (61.2%), Industrial (30.8%), Commercial (4.8%), Residential (3.2%)
Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions (1998E): Industrial (58.3%), Transportation (26.5%), Commercial (9.1%), Residential (6.1%)
Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (2000E): Oil (96.7%), Natural Gas (3.3%), Coal (0.0%)
Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (2000E): Oil (97.5%), Natural Gas (2.5%), Coal (0.0%)
Renewable Energy Consumption (1998E): 2.9 trillion Btu* (60% decrease from 1997)
Number of People per Motor Vehicle (1998): 6 (vs. U.S. value of 1.3)
Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Non-Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (ratified May 29th, 1997). Not a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol.
Major Environmental Issues: Industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia.
Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to Conventions on Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection and Ship Pollution.
* The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum,
dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar, wind, wood
and waste electric power. The renewable energy consumption statistic is based
on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar,
wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and
liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption
and carbon emissions are also based on IEA data.
**GDP based on EIA International Energy Annual 2000
State Energy Companies: Singapore National Oil Company; Singapore Petroleum Company; Singapore Power Company; PowerSeraya; PowerSenoko; Tuas Power; PowerGas
Major Refineries (1/1/02 Capacity): Esso Singapore Pty. Ltd. (265,000 bbl/d); Mobil Oil Singapore Pty. Ltd. (300,000 bbl/d); Shell Eastern Petroleum (Pte.) Ltd. (405,000 bbl/d) Singapore Refining Co. Ltd. (285,000 bbl/d). Major Ports: Singapore
Sources for this report include: Business Times Singapore; CIA World Factbook 2002; Dow Jones News Wire; Economist Intelligence Unit ViewsWire; Global Insight Asia Economic Outlook; Oil & Gas Journal; Petroleum Intelligence Weekly; Platt's Oilgram News; Reuters News Wire; Straits Times; U.S. Energy Information Administration.