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Russia (Eastern Russia)

Chapter Contents
Geography 1.1

Geodynamics

1.1

Electricity

1.1

Geothermal Electricity Generation

1.1

Planned Capacity

 

Geothermal Potential

1.2

Considerations

World Heritage

1.2

National Parks and Reserves

1.3
Vulnerable/Endangered Ecoregions 1.6
Geographic Location of Ecoregions 1.7
Population Distribution 1.8
References 1.9

Russia (Eastern Russia)

GEOGRAPHY

  • Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean
  • Geographic Coordinates: 60 00 N, 100 00 E
  • Area: total:  17,075,200 sq km (land:  16,995,800 sq km; water:  79,400 sq km)

(CIA: The World Factbook 2002: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html)


GEODYNAMICS

  • Several areas in the former Soviet republics are near plate margins. The subduction boundary at Kamchatka north of Japan is part of the "ring of fire"

(GEO: http://geothermal.marin.org/map/russia.html)

  • A chain of over fifty islands separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the Pacific Ocean was formed from volcanic activities from the Miocene-Pliocene and Mid-Pleistocene.
  • Within the Alpine folding zone of the Pacific Ocean Geosyncline (Nalivkin 1960) and is largely the result of subduction by the Pacific Plate under the Eurasian Plate

(WWF: http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/pa/pa0438_full.html)

  • Kamchatcka :
    • Far eastern Siberian peninsula
    • Abundant volcanoes, above northward extension of Kurils subduction zone
  • Kuril Islands :
    • Subduction of Pacific Plate below North American Plate
    • Back arc spreading in Sea of Okhotsk
    • Extends north as Kamchatka, south into Hokkaido

(Acadia University: http://ace.acadiau.ca/science/geol/rraeside/quizzes/world-notes.htm)


ELECTRICITY

  • Electric Installed Capacity (2000E): 203 gigawatts
  • Thermal:68%, Hydro: 21.5%, Nuclear:10.5%
  • Electricity Generation (2000E): 836 billion kilowatt-hours (Bkwh)
  • Electricity Consumption (2000E): 767 Bkwh
  • Net Electricity Exports (2000E): 69 Bkwh

(EIA: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/russia.html)

 

GEOTHERMAL ELECTRICITY GENERATION

  • Some geothermal expansion in the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands (1994-1999)
  • 32MWe, 4 MWe, and 20MWe power plants in the Kurile Islands planed (2000-2003)
 
Installed geothermal generating capacity
(2000) in MW

Pauzhetka

  11

Verkhne

  12

Total

  23

(IGA: http://iga.igg.cnr.it/russia.php)

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN EASTERN RUSSIA


 
  Regions

Water temperature: 400-2000C

  Water temperature: 500-2000C

Output
mln. m3
per day

Output mln. m3
per day

Possible economy of fuel and heat per year mln. t.c.e.
mln. Gcal

Output
mln. m3
per year

Output
mln. m3
per year

Possible economy of fuel and heat per year mln. t.c.e.
mln. Gcal

Eastern Siberia, 
Far East

3.35

1222.75

8.50
42.50

1.36

492

3.42
17.00

Yakutia, Magadan, Habarovsk, 
Sahalin Island

1.65

602.25

4.20
21.00

0.66

240

1.67
8.30

Kamchatka, 
Kuril Islands

1.70

620.50

4.30
21.50

0.7

252

1.75
8.70

(Black Sea Regional Energy Center, http://www.bsrec.bg/opet/russia/Geo_Russia.htm)


GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL

CONSIDERATIONS

WORLD HERITAGE

  • Lake Baikal
  • Volcanoes of Kamchatka

(UNESCO: http://whc.unesco.org/sites/natural.htm)


NATIONAL PARKS AND RESERVATIONS

National Parks of Russia

(last modified 15 January 2002)

National Park

Location

Area (km2)

Year Established

Bashkiria

Bashkortostan

832

1986

Chuvash Varmane

Chuvashia

252

1993

Kenozersky

Arkhangelskaya

1392

1991

Khvalynsky

Saratovskaya

?

1994?

Kurshskaya Kosa

Kaliningradskaya

66.21

1987

Losiny Ostrov

Moscowskaya

111.44

1983

Mariya Chodra

Maree El

366

1985

Meschersky

Ryazanskaya

1030

1992

Meschora

Vladimirskaya

1187.58

1992

Nizhnaja Kama

Tatarstan

261

1991

Orlovskoe Polesye

Orlovskaya

47.78

1994

Paanayarvi

Karelia

1033

1992

Pereslavsky

Yaroslavskaya

217

1988

Pribaikalsky

Irkutskaya

4127.42

1986

Prielbrussky

Kabardino-Balkariya

1004

1986

Pripyshmenskie Bory

Ekaterinburgskaya

490

1993

Russkiy Sever

Vologodskaya

1664

1992

Samarskaya Luka

Samarskaya

1280

1984

Sebezhsky

Pskovskaya

480

1995

Shorsky

Kemerovskaya

4180

1989

Shushensky Bor

Krasnoyarsk region

104

1995

Smolenskoe Poozerye

Smolenskaya

1462

1992

Smolny

Mordovia rep.

?

1994?

Sochinsky

Krasnodarsky Krai

1900

1983

Taganai

Cheliabinskaya

564

1991

Tunkinsky

Buryatia

11836

1991

Ugra

Kaluzhskaya

540

1996

Valdaisky

Novgorodskaya

1585

1990

Vodlozersky

Karelia, Arkhangelskaya

4047

1991

Yugyd Va

Komi

18917.01

1993

Zabaikalsky

Buryatia

2693

1986

Zjuratkul

Chelyabinskaya

868

1994

Zapovednik (Nature Preserves)

Zapovednik

Location

Area (km2)

Year Established

Altaisky

Altayskij krai

8812.38

1932

Astrakhansky

Astrakhansky

668.16

1919

Azas

Tuva republic

3372.9

1985

Baikalo-Lensky

Irkutskaya

6599.19

1986

Baikalsky

Buryat republic

1657.24

1969

Barguzinsky

Buryat republic

3744.23

1916

Bashkirsky

Bashkortostan

496.09

1930

Bassegi

Permskaya

379.57

1982

Bastak

Jewish auton. region

910

1997

Bolshaya Kokshaga

Maree El rep.

214

1993

Bolshekhekhtsirsky

Khabarovsky

451.23

1963

Botchinsky

Khabarovsky

2673.8

1994

Bryansky Les

Bryanskaya

121.68

1987

Bureinsky

Khabarovsky

3584.44

1987

Chazy

Khakasskaya

241.41

1991

Chernye Zemli

Kalmykiya

1250

1990

Dagestansky

Dagestan rep

190.61

1987

Dalnevostochny

Primorsky krai

643.16

1978

Darvinsky

Vologodskaya

1126.73

1945

Daursky

Chitinskaya

447.52

1987

Denezhkin Kamen

Ekaterinburgskaya

781.92

1991

Dzerginsky

Buryat rep.

2378.06

1992

Dzhugdzhursky

Khabarovsky krai

8062.56

1990

Galichia Gora

Lipetskaya

2.31

1925

Great Arctic

Krasnoyarsky krai

41692.22

1993

Gydansky

Yamalo-Nenetsky unit

8780

1996

Ilmesnky

Cheliabinskaya

303.8

1920

Kabardino-Balkarsky

Kabardino-Balkaria

740.99

1976

Kaluzhskie Zaseki

Kaluzhskaya

185.33

1992

Kandalakshsky

Murmanskaya

705.27

1932

Katunsky

Altaisky krai

1500.79

1991

Kavkazsky

Krasnodarsky krai

2632.77

1924

Kedrovaja Pad

Primorsky krai

178.97

1925

Kerzhensky

Nizhegorodskaya

469.4

1993

Khankaisky

Primorsky krai

379

1990

Khingansky

Amurskaya

978.36

1963

Khopersky

Voronezhskaya

161.78

1935

Kivach

Karelia

108.8

1931

Komandorsky

Kamchatskaya

36486.79

1993

Komsomolsky

Khabarovsky krai

638.66

1963

Koryaksky

Kamchatka

3271.67

1995

Kostomukshsky

Karelia

474.57

1983

Kronotsky

Kamchatskaya

10990

1934

Kurilsky

Sakhalinskaya

653.65

1984

Kuzneztky Alatau

Kemerovskaya

4555

1989

Laplandsky

Murmanskaya

2684.36

1930

Lazovsky

Primorsky krai

1200.24

1957

Les na Vorskle

Belgorodskaya

11.28

1979

Magadansky

Magadanskaya

8838.05

1982

Malaya Sozva

Tyumenskaya

2255.62

1976

Maly Abakan

Khakasskaya

978.29

1993

Mordovsky

Mordovia rep.

321.48

1936

Nurgush

Kirovskaya

59.19

1994

Nyzhnesvirsky

Leningradskaya

416

1980

Oksky

Ryazanskaya

557.31

1935

Olekminsky

Yakutia rep.

8471.08

1984

Orenburgsky

Orenburgskaya

216

1989

Pasvik

Murmanskaya

147.27

1992

Pechoro-Ilychsky

Komi rep.

7213.22

1930

Pinezhsky

Arkhangelskaya

412.44

1974

Polistovsky

Pskovskaya

360.25

1994

Poronaisky

Sakhalinskaya

566.94

1988

Prioksko-Terrasny

Moskovskaya

49.45

1935

Prisursky

Chuvash republic

90.25

1995

Privolzhsk Lesostep

Penzenskaya

83.08

1989

Putoransky

Krasnoyarsky krai

18873

1988

Rdeisky

Novgorodskaya

359.22

1994

Rostovsky

Rostovskaya

94.64

1995

Sayano-Shushensky

Krasnoyarsky krai

3903.68

1976

Severo-Osetinsky

Severnaya Osetiya

289.99

1967

Shulgan Tash

Bashkortostan

225

1986

Sikhote-Alinsky

Primorsky krai

3470.52

1935

Sokhondinsky

Chitinskaya

2110.07

1973

Stolby

Krasnoyarsky krai

471.54

1925

Taimyrsky

Krasnoyarsky krai

17819.28

1979

Teberdinsky

Karachaevo-Cherkessia

849.96

1936

Tsentralno-Chernozemny

Kurskaya

48.74

1935

Tsentralno-Lesnoy

Tverskaya

213.8

1931

Tsentralno-Sibirsky

Krasnoyarsky krai

9720.17

1985

Tungussky

Yakutia rep.

2965.62

1995

Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina

Tuva rep.

396

1993

Ussurijsky

Primorsky krai

404.32

1932

Ust Lensky

Yakutia rep.

14330

1985

Verkhne-Tazovsky

Tyumenskaya

6313.08

1986

Vishersky

Permskaya

2412

1990

Visimsky

Ekaterinburgskaya

135.06

1971

Vitimsky

Irkutskaya

5850.21

1982

Volzhsko-Kamsky

Tatarstan rep.

80.34

1960

Voronezhsky

Voronezhskaya

310.53

1927

Voroninsky

Tambovskaya

108.19

1994

Wrangel Island

Magadanskaya

7956.5

1976

Yugansky

Tyumenskaya

6228.86

1982

Yuzhno-Uralsky

Chelyabinskaya

2549.14

1978

Zeysky

Amurskaya

993.9

1963

Zhigulevsky

Samarskaya

231.4

1927

(Johnston’s Archive: http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/other/natpk-russia.html)


VULNERABLE/ENDANGERED ECOREGIONS

  • South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests (PA0438)
  • Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests (PA0443)
  • Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mounains conifer forests (PA0505)
  • Sayan montane conifer forests IPA0519)
  • East Siberian taiga (PA0601)
  • Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga (PA0606)
  • Sakhalin Island taiga (PA0607)
  • Trans-Bikal conifer forests (PA0609)
  • Mongolian-Manchurian grassland (PA0813)
  • Amur meadow steppe (PA0901)
  • Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows (PA0907)
  • Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra (PA1112)

(WWF: http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/pa/pa0438_full.html)


GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS OF ECOREGIONS

 

 

(National Geographic: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/terrestrial.html?id=1&mapServiceName=WW_Terrecos&locWidth=120&locHeight=72&cMinx=141.8004
&cMiny=45.914108&cMaxx=142.666901&cMaxy=47.798401&size=small&detail=detailed?id=1&size=small&detail=detailed&cMinx=142.23&cMiny=41&cMaxx=185.43&cMaxy=69.13
)


POPULATION DISTRIBUTION

  • Estimate: 147.5 – 149.9 million in 1995
  • 78% lives in the European part of Russia
  • Most of industrial cities in the European part
    • Moscow 8.7 million [1992]
    • St. Petersburg 4.4 million
    • Novosibirsk: 1.4 million
    • Nizhniy Novgorod: 1.4 million
    • Yekaterinburg: 1.4 million
    • Samara: 1.2 million
    • Omsk: 1.2 million
    • Chelyabinsk: 1.1 million
    • Kazan 1.1 million
  • Only Novosibirsk and Omsk located east of the Urals
  • Distribution varies from more than 200 to 0.03 person per square kilometer

(University of Louisvill Ekstrom Library Government Publications: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+ru0064))


References

 
  1. Acadia University. Significant places for global tectonics. Retrieved from world wide web: http://ace.acadiau.ca/science/geol/rraeside/quizzes/world-notes.htm (October 24, 2002)

  2. Black Sea Regional Energy Center. Geothermal energy in Russia. Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.bsrec.bg/opet/russia/Geo_Russia.htm (September 10)

  3. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). (January 2002). The world factbook 2002 – Russia. Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html (September 10, 2002)

  4. Energy Information Administration (EIA). (November 2002). Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/russia.html (November 24, 2002)

  5. Geothermal Education Office (GEO). Russia. Retrieved from world wide web: http://geothermal.marin.org/map/russia.html (September 10, 2002)

  6. International Geothermal Association (IGA). (May 2002). Welcome to our page with data for Russia. Retrieved from world wide web: http://iga.igg.cnr.it/russia.php (October 2, 2002)

  7. Johnston’s Archive. National parks in Russia. (January 2002). Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/other/natpk-russia.html (September 11, 2002)

  8. National Geographic. Wild World – Terrestrial ecoregions of the world. Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/terrestrial.html?id=1&mapServiceName=WW_Terrecos&locWidth=120&locHeight=72&cMinx=141.8004&cMiny=45.914108
    &cMaxx=142.666901&cMaxy=47.798401&size=small&detail=detailed?id=1&size=small&detail=detailed&cMinx=142.23&cMiny=41&cMaxx=185.43&cMaxy=69.13
    (Septmeber 12, 2002)

  9. United Nation Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). National properties on the world heritage list. (July 1, 2002). Retrieved from world wide web: http://whc.unesco.org/sites/natural.htm (October 24, 2002)

  10. University of Louisvill Ekstrom Library Government Publications. Russia population Statistics (in Russia:A country study). Retrieved from world wide web: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+ru0064) (December 27, 2002)

  11. World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Ecoregions. Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/pa/pa0438_full.html (October 20, 2002)

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