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map of Japan in Asia

Japan

Chapter Contents  
Geography 2.1

Geodynamics

2.1

Electricity

2.1

Geothermal Electricity Generation

2.2

Planned Capacity

Geothermal Potential

2.3

Considerations

 

World Heritage

2.5

National Parks and Reserves

2.5
Vulnerable/Endangered Ecoregions 2.6
Geographic Location of Ecoregions 2.6
Population Distribution 2.7
References 2.8

Japan

GEOGRAPHY

  • Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula
  • Geographic Coordinates : 36 00 N, 138 00 E
  • Area: total:  377,835 sq km (land:  374,744 sq km; water:  3,091 sq km)

(CIA: The World Factbook 2001: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html)


GEODYNAMICS

  • Active volcanic activities over the past 20 million years

(GEO: http://geothermal.marin.org/map/japan.html)

  • The Pacific Plate and the Philippine Plate subduct the eastern border of the Eurasian Plate
  • Eastern edge of the Eurasian Plate not the edge of a continent
  • Volcanic activity at the junctions à Island arcs formed in the ocean
  • Actually composed of four (or five) island arcs formed by volcanic activity where the Pacific Plate and the Philippine Plate subduct the eastern border of the Eurasian Plate

(The Natural World of Japan: http://www.seinan-gu.ac.jp/~djohnson/natural/geology.html)

  • Hokkaido
    • Located on North American plate, behind Kuril arc
  • Honshu
    • Split by an incipient plate boundary between North American and Asian plates
  • Izu Islands
    • Immature volcanic chain on the Pacific-Philippine Sea plate boundary
    • Extends onto Japan (Fujisan)
  • Shikoku
    • Location of type sections of Sanbagawa and Ryoke metamorphism
  • Kyusyu
    • Extends south as the Ryukyu Island
  • Ryukyu Islands
    • Subduction of Philippines Sea plate below Eurasian plate
    • Extends between Kyushu and Taiwan

(Acadia University: http://ace.acadiau.ca/science/geol/rraeside/quizzes/world-notes.htm)


ELECTRICITY

  • Electric Generation Capacity (1/1/99E): 226 gigawatts
  • Electricity Production (1999E): 1,018 billion kilowatthours
  • Thermal: 59%, Nuclear: 30%, Hydro: 8%, Other renewable: <3%

(EIA: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/japan.html)


GEOTHERMAL ELECTRICITY GENERATION

Installed geothermal generating capacity (2000) in MW

Mori

 50.0

Sumikawa

 50.0

Kakkonda

 80.0

Uenotai

 28.8

Onikobe

 25.0

Yanaizu-Nishiyama

 65.0

Otake

 13.0

Hatchobaru

 110.0

Yamagawa

 30.0

Ogiri

 30.0

Takigami

 25.0

Onuma

 10.0

Matsukawa

 23.5

Suginoi

 3.0

Kirishima Kokusai Hotel

 0.1

Takenoyu

 0.2

Hachijojima

 3.3

Total

 546.9

(IGA: http://iga.igg.cnr.it/japan.php)

  • Kokonoe town in Oita, Kyushu – largest geothermal power generation
    • Total 147.5 MW
    • Otake station (12.5 MW)
    • Hatchobaru station (110 MW)
    • Takigami station (25 MW)
    • Additional 2 small-to-medium size binary cycle power generation demo-plants operated by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

(IGA: http://iga.igg.cnr.it/japan.php)

  • 1,940GWh/yr for space heating, manufacturing, agriculture, and aquaculture
  • Electric generation – Recent
  • 1st dry steam plant – Matsukawa (22 MWe) ; in 1966
  • Limited developable areas due to national parks and spas ; Average 40 MWe
  • 7 plants operation by 1982 ; 10-55 MWe
  • 528.8 MWe total on line
  • Additional project : 20 plants ; 3 MWe
  • Goal : Mass-production 100 to 500kW binary power plants of 23.7MWe

(GEO: http://geothermal.marin.org/map/japan.html)


GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL

Geothermal Development Promotion Survey

Japanese geothermal energy development promotion survey areas

(NEDO: http://www.nedo.go.jp/chinetsu/sokushin/indexe.htm)

 

Division of Geothermal Development Promotion Survey Districts
by the Highest Temperature

Highest temperature in a district

Number of districts

District

Districts where temperatures exceeding 200oC have been confirmed

34 districts

Hachimanntai-tobu, Dozangawa-karyu, Kurino-Tearai, Iburi, Yuzawa-Ogachi, Okuaizu, Shimokita, Azuma-hokubu, Toyoha, Unzenn-seibu, Kamikawa, Kuju, Yakumo, Minase, Inawashiro, Noboribetsu, Akan, Tazawako-tobu, Hakkoda-seibu, Iwatesan-seibu, Hachijojima, Mizuwaketoge-nanbu, Amemasudake, Asosan-seibu, Sarukuradake, Shiratori, Shibetsudake, Wasabizawa, Ashiro, Kumaishi, Musadake, Akinomiya, Tsujinodake, Kuwanosawa

Districts where temperatures of 180oC to 200oC have been confirmed

3 districts

Minamikayabe, Okushiri, Kaminoyu-Santai

Districts where temperatures of 150oC to 180oC have been confirmed

3 districts

Okiura,Yuda, Himekawa

Districts where temperatures of 100oC to 150oC have been confirmed

7 districts

Teshikaga-seibu, Ikedako-shuhen, Hishikari, Obanazawa-tobu, Oitagawa-joryu, Hongu, Haneyama

Districts with temperatures below 100oC

5 districts

Otaki, Mogami-Akakura, Fukuejima-seibu, Kuenohirayama, Kunbetsudake

Total

52 districts

  

(NEDO: http://www.nedo.go.jp/chinetsu/sokushin/indexe.htm)

- Kakkonda geothermal field

(NEDO: http://www.nedo.go.jp/chinetsu/dgrs/indexe.htm)

  • Kakkonda geothermal field: higher than 500° C

CONSIDERATIONS

WORLD HERITAGE

  • Yakushima
  • Shirakami-Sanchi

(UNESCO: http://whc.unesco.org/sites/natural.htm)


NATIONAL PARKS AND RESERVES

Quasi-national parks in Japan

Quasi-national parks in Japan

(Tamagawa University: www.tamagawa.ac.jp/.../harker/forest/destruction.htm)


VULNERABLE/ENDANGERED ECOREGIONS

  • Hokkaido deciduous forests (PA0423)
  • Nihonkai evergreen forests (PA0427)
  • Nihonkai montane deciduous forests (PA0428)
  • Taiheiyo evergreen forests (PA0440)
  • Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests (PA0441)
  • Hokkaido montane conifer forests (PA0510)
  • Honshu alpine conifer forests (PA0511)
  • Nansei Islands subtropical evergreen forests (IM0170)

(WWF: http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial_pa.html)


GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF ECOREGIONS

GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION of ecoregions

(National Geographic, http://www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/terrestrial.html?id=1
&mapServiceName=WW_Terrecos&locWidth=120&locHeight=72&cMinx=141.8004
&cMiny=45.914108&cMaxx=142.666901&cMaxy=47.798401&size=small&detail=detailed?id=1
&size=small&detail=detailed&cMinx=142.23&cMiny=41&cMaxx=185.43&cMaxy=69.13
)


POPULATION DISTRIBUTION

Japanese population density by prefecture 2000

(Statistics Bureau & Statistics Center: http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/handbook/c02cont.htm#cha2_6)


References

  1. Acadia University. Significant places for global tectonics. Retrieved from world wide web: http://ace.acadiau.ca/science/geol/rraeside/quizzes/world-notes.htm (October 24, 2002)

  2. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). (January 2002). The world factbook 2002 – Japan. Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html (September 10, 2002)

  3. Energy Information Administration (EIA). (May 2002). Country analysis briefs – Japan. Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/japan.html (October 2, 2002)

  4. Geothermal Education Office (GEO). (October 1997). Japan. Retrieved from world wide web : http://www.geothermal.marin.org/map/japan.html (September 10, 2002)

  5. International Geothermal Association (IGA). (May 9, 2002). Welcome to our page with data for Japan. Retrieved from world wide web: http://iga.igg.cnr.it/japan.php (October 2, 2002)

  6. Ministry of the Environment (March 1997). Protection of endangered species. Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.env.go.jp/en/jeg/biodiv/species.html (October 2, 2002)

  7. National Geographic. Wild world – Terrestrial ecoregions of the world. Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/terrestrial.html?id=1&mapServiceName=
    WW_Terrecos &locWidth=120&locHeight=72&cMinx=141.8004&cMiny=45.914108&cMaxx=
    142.666901 &cMaxy=47.798401&size=small&detail=detailed?id=1&size=small&detail=
    detailed &cMinx=142.23&cMiny=41&cMaxx=185.43&cMaxy=69.13
    (October 20, 2002)

  8. Natural World of Japan, The. Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.seinan-gu.ac.jp/~djohnson/natural/geology.html (October 1, 2002)

  9. New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Deep-seated geothermal resources survey. Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.nedo.go.jp/chinetsu/dgrs/indexe.htm (September 20, 2002)

  10. New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Geothermal development promotion survey. Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.nedo.go.jp/chinetsu/sokushin/indexe.htm (September, 10, 2002)

  11. New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Division of geothermal development promotion survey districts by the highest temperature. Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.nedo.go.jp/chinetsu/sokushin/indexe.htm (September, 10, 2002)

  12. Statistics Bureau & Statistics Center (2002). Population density and regional distribution. Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/handbook/c02cont.htm#cha2_6 (October 2, 2002)

  13. Tamagawa Universtiy. Quasinational park in Japan. Retrieved from world wide web: www.tamagawa.ac.jp/.../harker/ forest/destruction.htm (September 17, 2002)

  14. United Nation Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (July 1, 2002). Natural properties on the world heritage list. Retrieved from world wide web: http://whc.unesco.org/sites/natural.htm (October 24, 2002)

  15. World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Ecoregions. Retrieved from world wide web: http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial_pa.html (October 24, 2002)

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