een wereldwijd elektriciteitsnet een oplossing voor veel problemen  GENI es una institución de investigación y educación-enfocada en la interconexión de rejillas de electricidad entre naciones.  ??????. ????????????????????????????????????  nous proposons la construction d’un réseau électrique reliant pays et continents basé sur les ressources renouvelables  Unser Planet ist mit einem enormen Potential an erneuerbaren Energiequellen - Da es heutzutage m` glich ist, Strom wirtschaftlich , können diese regenerativen Energiequellen einige der konventionellen betriebenen Kraftwerke ersetzen.  한국어/Korean  utilizando transmissores de alta potência em áreas remotas, e mudar a força via linha de transmissões de alta-voltagem, podemos alcançar 7000 quilómetros, conectando nações e continentes    
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About Us

Power Enginers state that abundant renewable energy exists today. Available with present technology


e must see the problem as a whole. We must understand and explain to all other men on our planet that the interconnection between power systems of different countries is one of the important tasks for all humanity."

Victor Yershevich, Head of Russian Delegation, Director of Science, Energoset Project

Table of Contents

Dear GENI Friend

The Potential of an Electrical Interconnection Between Russia and North America

    Regional Focus
    The Technology of High Voltage Systems
    Potential Markets and Uses
    Sociopolitical Implications
    Environmental Implications
    Economic Costs
    Economic Benefits
    Potential Sources of Financing and Additional Research Requirements
    Conclusion and Recommendation

What the Experts Say


Dear GENI Friend;

Support for the GENI proposal is growing daily around the world. Recent meetings in Russia, Alaska, and New York have strongly corroborated our work.

In January, Russian specialists joined Alaskan engineers to explore the renewable energy potential of the northern region and the transmission of power to demand centers between the two nations, as well as to China, North and South Korea, Japan and Canada. This meeting was the first step in a long process. The Summary of Discussions is included in this edition.

Later that month, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers-Power Engineering Society (IEEE/PES) hosted a panel session to examine large-scale, remote renewable energy around the world that could be delivered reliably, as well as cost competitively. All agreed the expansion of inter-regional electrical networks would cause a reduction in fossil fuel use and subsequent pollution. Excerpts from that discussion are also inside.

After the setbacks caused by the Cold War and oil politics in the 70,s and 80,s, GENI now has strong interest from the energy and environmental divisions of the United Nations. Member states are viewing GENI as the project that promotes development, reduces pollution, and enhances international cooperation.

The United Nations is cooperating with us to produce a World Conference on Electrical Interconnections in Sydney, Australia in November. We plan a much deeper, quantitative analysis than was done at the Winnipeg Workshop last year. This follows the upcoming UN Earth Summit this June in Brazil. Our delegation will be speaking with representatives from all participating nations.

We need your help now. As the Russians and American struggle to convert military equipment and jobs to civilian use, we assert that the connecting of international and inter-regional electric energy networks will inspire the engineers, create new jobs, and provide a vision for the New World Order. We seek you help in making this the priority project in all countries this year.

In Partnership,

Peter Meisen
Executive Director


Len Bateman, Will Gannett, Robert Kiyosaki, Wyn Knapp, Peter Meisen, David Steven, Kim Watkins


Raghbir Basi, Brian Bieler, Milton Byrd, David Cline, Mark Victor Hansen, Terry Lipman, Karen Morgan, Robert Muller, Glenn Olds, Malcolm Roberts, Marshall Thurber

Newsletter produced by KING & COMPANY, San diego, California, U.S.A.

The Potential of an Electrical Interconnection Between Russia and North America

Held in Anchorage, Alaska, USA January 15-17, 1992

Hosted by: The Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development,
The Alaska Energy Authority,
The Alaska Rural Electric Cooperative Association,
and Global Energy Network Institute


tive of
this work-
shop was to
explore a proposal
to provide low-cost
electrical power to North
America and Russia by link-
ing the two continents with a
high voltage power transmission
line. Thousands of years ago, Asia
and North America were linked by the
Bering Land Bridge, and people walked
between what are now two continents. Until
recently, the United States and Russian borders
were closed except for an occasional excursion by
local Eskimos and military observers. The thawing of
the Cold War caused a shift in the superpower relationship,
from polarization to cooperation and the pursuit of mutual benefits.
Energy specialists from both countries came together in Anchorage,
Alaska for a workshop to explore the potential for transmitting electricity
between the continents.


Gregory N. Aleksnadrov, Leningrad Tech. Univ.

Afzal Khan, Alaska Energy Authority

Moe Aslam, Municipal Light and Power

Peter Meisen, GENI

Raghbir S. Basi, Alaska Pacific Univ.

Brent Petrie, Alaska Energy Authority

Lev S. Belyaev, Siberian Energy Institute

Robert Retherford, P.E. Consultant

Bob Bulmer, Alaska Dept. of Commerce

Nikolai Voropai, Siberian Energy Institute

Vladilen Fotin, Electrotechnical Institute

Michael Wolfe, Int'l Energy Systems Consultant

Vladimir Gatanov, HVDC Power Transmission Research Inst.

Norio Yamamoto, Global Infrastructure Fund Japan (Attended 1/15 only)

Dora Gropp, Chugach Electric Assoc.

Victor Yershevich, Energoset Project

Regional Focus

Alaska and the Russian Far East are essential for an intercontinental link. They share a common geography with a climate of extreme conditions. Permafrost is common to both regions and a challenge for system planners in northern latitudes. Both have enormous natural resources spanning vest territories. Yet the population density and energy demand within these regions remain small.

The existing transmission systems in the Russian Far East and Alaska have been developed to connect only their respective isolated loads. The Kamchatka Peninsula, Magadan and Yakutia regions, and northern Khabarovsk region in Russia operate independently. In Alaska, the only significant interconnect links one narrow strip of communities called the Railbelt. Voltage levels of these transmission networks range up to 230 kV.

Both regions have large hydropower resources. Siberia and the Far East have untapped hydro potential of tens of GWs. In addition, one of the largest tidal potentials in the world of 30 GW-80 GW is at Penshinsk. Alaska has another potential 40 GW of untapped hydro, including 4GW of tidal. Large geothermal resources exist along the volcano and fault lines of both Siberia and Alaska.

The Technology of High Voltage Systems

World Game with Medard Gabel
Alaska Workshop Delegates
Left to right: Peter Meisen, —(background man), Local Alaskan, —(background woman), Bob Bulmer, —(background man), —(man), Michael Hesse Wolfe, Norio Yamamoto, Brent Petrie, Victor Yersevish, Lev Belyaev, —(background man), —(man), —(foreground man), —(foreground man)

Recent advances in extra high-voltage (EHV) AC and DC technology have extended the transmission limits thousands of kilometers over the past few decades. Currently commissioned in Brazil, a +600kV line extends 800km. In Russia, 1150kV AC transmission lines of 2,000 km are in operation. Today in Russia, a 2,400 km line, capable of carrying 6,000 MW (+750kV), is under construction. A 1984 CIGRE Paper (International Conference on Large High-Voltage Electric Systems) revealed that 7,000 km distances could be economical. Recent breakthroughs in EHV technology promise further extension of transmission ranges.

Underwater cable systems are common around the world: the English Channel 2,000 MW intertie, the 200 km Sweden-to-Finland link, and New Zealand,s Cook Strait crossing. Under development is the 250 km connection o Tasmania to the mainland of Australia.

The Bering Strait is approximately 100 km across from Alaska's Seward Peninsula to the Chukchi Peninsula of Russia. The average depth is fifty meters. On the bottom, sand and gravel cover sedimentary rock. For eight to nine months of the year, ice covers the strait. Each spring icebergs move south, sometimes scraping as much as three meters into the sea floor. Still, existing marine cable technology exists to reliably span the Bering Strait.

Potential Markets and Uses

  1. Reserve sharing and seasonal exchanges, plus all beneficial effects of common operation.

  2. Leveling of demand between day and night--peak electricity demand in central Russia coincides with the demand trough in the United States.

  3. Displacement of fossil fuel, and future decommission of old nuclear power plants in Russia and North America.

  4. Provide a large renewable supply for the growing electrical energy demand, including electric vehicles.

  5. Offer an additional opportunity for Japan, North and south Korea, and China to work cooperatively toward exchanging renewable energy.

  6. Mining operations and energy-intensive industry.

  7. Production of liquid hydrogen

The northern arc of Russia and Alaska has the potential to become the Crown of the Pacific--demonstrating the feasibility of a global interconnect using renewable resources.

Sociopolitical Implications

Cold War politics no longer pose a barrier to interconnecting East and West. The nature and scope of the Bering Strait interconnection proposal require that it be adequately developed before serious consideration can take place. It is critical to involve local officials and energy specialists in each region, as well as national and international officials.

For this project to work, Russia, the United States and Canada must cooperate closely from the start. Workshop participants stressed the need to educate all interest groups in those countries at the same time since the scope of the project is so broad.

The Russian-North American interconnection could be the man on the moon project of the 90,s; but much easier to accomplish with existing technology. While Russia struggles to create new government and economic systems, and America limps through a persistent recession, an integrative, coherent world vision is needed to achieve mutual benefits.

The electrical connection of Russia and North America across the Bering Strait for mutual environmental and economic benefit would galvanize the attention of the entire world. If Russians and Americans can work together for the common good, is it not possible for all other neighboring countries to begin the same process?

Environmental Implications

The major benefit will be a reduction in the use of environmentally sensitive fossil and nuclear projects. Workshop participants agreed that this connection would be viable only if it were to be a major power corridor: 10 GW - 30 GW. This energy could supply peaking power needs on the daylight side of the planet. This time zone leveling of demand could be enhanced with increased transfer between the two continents. More efficient use of the remaining plans could reduce emissions of pollutants that cause global warming.

The environmental considerations include: visual impact of towers, electromagnetic fields (EMF), effects on fragile ecosystems, new roads into undeveloped lands, effects on marine life and wildlife, and impacts on wilderness areas.

Economic Costs

A specific transmission project, linking Krasnoyarsk to Chicago, was discussed to determine the approximate costs of this long-distance interconnection. The hub of the Siberian Power Pool for the Russian Unified Power System is at Krasnoyarsk, site of large hydro projects. The Chicago area is a major demand hub in North America. The approximate distance from Krasnoyarsk to Magadan is 3,000 km; from Magadan to Anchorage, 3,000 km, from Anchorage to Chicago, 4,000 km.

The underwater link across the Bering Strait would be DC. Both AC and DC schemes were discussed for the connecting links.

The discussion of transfer capacities revealed the economic need for transmission of extremely large blocks of power. Participants generated very rough cost estimates for each sections, and concurred that the cost of an initial 10 GW system (+750kV), if built today, would be approximately $20 billion (USD).

Additional required are cost estimates for the links from Magadan to Khabarovsk in Russia, and from Alaska and Canada to the Pacific Northwest in the U.S. These estimates are necessary to optimize the economic potential of these interconnections.

Economic Benefits

The methodology of conducting the economic analysis will have to satisfy international and institutional requirements. Demand for forecasting, construction costs, fuel, operation and maintenance, projected economic life and financing costs will be required for all segments of the project.

The economic benefits of a 10,000 km Krasnoyarsk to Chicago transmission link were examined. Loaded at 60%, over 40 Twh would be delivered (assuming 20% system losses), and with maximum loaded of 90 %, over 60 Twh would be delivered. Delegates realized that extensive study would be required to estimate all costs.

It was agreed that the economics of large scale systems could make this project viable. Previous interconnected systems have always shown sizable benefits beyond the initial economic justification required to commence construction.

Potential Sources of Financing and Additional Research Requirements

The first follow-up step to the workshop discussion is the creation of a concept paper. The second step is the production of a project proposal. When financial support is available, a detailed pre-feasibility study must be prepared with the cooperation of engineering and institutional organizations in Russia and North America. This study should be supported by the Japanese and Europeans. World Bank criteria should then be used for a comprehensive feasibility study.

The Transmission Network +/- 750kv Direct Current Russia - USA
3 - the length of transmission lines, thousands of km
Capacity of each transmission - 10 GW

Sources of financing, as well as research expertise, are located around the world. Starting points include the World Bank, United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Environmental Program ( UNEP), and the United States International Trade and Development Program (TDP).

The governments of Japan and the United States could assist, through the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) and the Department of Energy (DOE), respectively. Jointly, work could begin through the Global Infrastructure Fund (GIF). Global engineering and construction firms such as ABB, Bechtel, and Brown & Root often will sponsor research and provide construction financing.

It is anticipated that utilities will offer assistance since they have a vested interest in the outcome, and university think-tanks could offer strategic planning. Oil companies could be approached, as many now realize that they must movie into new energy options if they are to survive the decline in our oil reserves. The Russians said that financial assistance from their country will be limited for the near future.

Conclusion and Recommendation

The scope of this project appears formidable, yet workshop delegates concurred that the potential benefits are worth the investigation. Vast renewable resources and improved efficiency of existing systems will become available at a lower cost, with the associated planetary environmental benefits.

Workshop participants request that Russian, American and Canadian governments, power companies, and institutions support the study of an inter-continental electrical energy link from Russia to North America.

Just as the linking of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans via the Panama Canal captivated the world, bridging Russia and North America will Galvanize the attention of every nation — a macro-project of mutual benefit to all.

What the Experts Say

The following are excerpts from the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineer / Power Engineering Society (IEEE / PES) Winter Meeting in New York on January 29, 1992. The title of the panel session was:

Remote Renewable Energy Sources made possible by High Voltage Interconnections

Joe Falcon, President Elect,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers:

renewable energy resource sites - hydro, solar, tidalThe advantage of these interconnected regional grids and movements of large blocks of power was covered two decades ago in a United Nations report in 1971. Some of the interconnections discussed then were the ties between North and South American to more fully utilize the great hydro potential of South America, and the potential of 30,000 MW on the Congo River in Africa to serve the European market. The technology was not available then for economical pursuit of long distance high voltage transmission. That technology is available today.

Len Bateman,
Bateman & Associates,
Member IEEE and CIGRE committees on DC links:

Over 100 interconnecting lines, ranging from low voltage to 765 kV, cross the border between Canada and the Untied States, transporting over 8,000 MW of electric power. The export of electricity is equivalent to the export of finished industrial products. With the export of hydroelectric power, there is no depletion of Canada's power resource. Undeveloped hydro potential in the world energy equation represents waste. If these sites are environmentally sound they represent a source of energy that can qualify as a sustainable development.

Luigi Paris, Power System Engineering Consultant,
Professor, University of Pisa, Italy:

Transmission is the best renewable energy available today. In Europe, the Inga (Central Africa Hydro) can be delivered at a price competitive with the energy produced with oil. So, Inga can be considered to be an oil saver. The implementation of the Grand Inga project will assure the African developing countries many social benefits. First, it is important to know that the exported hydroelectric energy does not reduce the potential richness of the producing country, such as the case of oil or coal exportation. Therefore, this is not a colonial enterprise, and does not compromise the future development of the country. Second, a large part of the labor involved in the project is local and represents a contribution to the improvement of the social condition of the African people. Furthermore, the large European energy market which makes economic the Grand Inga construction allows for African countries to make use of the cheapest energy in the world for their development.

Abdallah El-Shehri, Chairman, Electrical Department,
King Fahd University, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia:

The savings these countries (12 Middle Eastern nations) could achieve by interconnection are tremendous compared to their system sizes, and, of course, the bigger systems save more. In the year 2015, the saving would be roughly 6,500 MW if these systems are interconnected. This is about $4 billion in 1990 values. There is a great incentive for interconnecting these countries, and if interconnected they could make the joint interconnection between Africa, Europe and Asia.

Jacques Lemay, Technical Coordinator,
Hydro Quebec HVDC Interconnection Projects:

85% of our (electrical) generation is located at an average distance of 1000 km. Beginning in the year 2000, we expect the exports will represent 7% of the total energy sales in the province of Quebec, but they will generate 28% of the profits. In the decade from 1980 through 1989, revenue of more than $5 billion from energy exports was generated. Most of it from surplus power. Of course, these interconnections have advantages other than just economic for both parties involved. They allow the displacement of substantial amount of thermal generation in the other systems which contribute to reducing acid rains and greenhouse gases.

Michael Hesse Wolfe, International Energy Planning Consultant,
Berkeley, California

There is enough for all. One statistic is enough. On the Arabian peninsula there is enough solar every year which is equivalent to their entire petroleum reserve that ever was. Every year...we have an abundance of major renewable energy resources on hand. It is up to us as we near the turn of the century to think very seriously about developing those resources for the benefit of humanity and the planet.


  1991: The Year in Review                   Milestones for 1992


In cooperation with the Manitoba HVDC Research Center, GENI hosted 36 specialists form around the world to Winnipeg, Canada, to examine The Limits of Long-Distance High Voltage Power Transmission and the Corresponding Economic, Environmental, and Socio-Political Implications.Strong corroboration was given to expanding electrical networks between nations and continents. The Executive Summary was sent to the leaders of all nations and a video produced from the workshop--A Win-Win Solution--has been seen around the world.


GENI already has two outstanding 15-minute videos: What If..A New Global Option and A Win-Win Solution. We are now creating a half hour documentary video for television broadcast. By designing for both public and network programming, we anticipate this documentary will be seen by millions around the world. Completion is scheduled prior to the Earth Summit so that international distribution can begin immediately.


In 1971, the United Nations Natural Resources Committee recommended linking South to North America and Africa to Europe, thus making available abundant renewable resources and displacing fossil fuel generation. The Cold War and oil politics of the day repressed the proposal at that time. The energy and environmental programs in the UN are once again interested in the project and have offered their full support for the upcoming Sydney World Conference.


Delegates from 166 nations will be gathering in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 1-12, 1992, for the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development. Their goal is to set strategies for improving our planet's environment while supporting sustainable development in second and third world nations. GENI will have a delegation in Brazil to meet representatives from around the world, to inform them of our work, and to invite key participants to the World Conference in Sydney.


The first follow-up regional meeting was held in Anchorage, Alaska, with six Russian transmission experts and eight Alaskan engineer. GENI co-hosted, with the Alaska Energy Authority and Department of Commerce, the discussion titled The Potential of an Electrical Interconnection Between Russia and North America. The delegates concurred that large renewable resources could be transmitted to the demand centers in China, Japan, the Koreas, Canada and the United States.

Funding needs: $1,000,000
Your generous support is requested



Upon recommendation by the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) to do a "bigger Winnipeg," we have begun plans for the World Conference on International Electrical Interconnections in Sydney Australia, November, 1992. There will be 150 delegates representing all continents and regions. The qualitative summary of the Winnipeg Workshop will be the basis for a quantitative analysis in each area: Technical, Economic, Financial, Environmental, and Socio-Political, with implementation groups studying specific inter-regional projects. The desired result will be a commitment similar to the Montreal Protocol on ozone reduction.

The public must be made aware of this priority solution, so a televised concert is also planned to educate the masses with music, dance and video.

How can I support GENI?


Request a GENI Video

Discuss this proposal and share the GENI video with friends and business associates. (Use the Tell your friends about this page feature below)

Write a letter to your political leaders, especially the Presidents of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. and the U.N. Secretary General

Contact your local media regarding a feature story on GENI

Arrange a presentation for GENI at your group's luncheon or trade conference

Contribute money or skills to forward the education of this global opportunity

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    This 15 minute video has been seen around the world. Designed for the general public, it's the best overview of the GENI Initiative. Introduction by John Denver.

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    A 15 minute discussion by ten delegates who participated in the International Workshop in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada in July 1991. The consensus statement strongly corroborated the GENI initiative as very credible. It's a win-win proposal for everyone involved. Joe Falson

  • Reports, Maps, Paper Submissions, and Graphs
    Complete set of documents from International Workshop, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada July 1991 — and Russian/Alaskan Meeting — Anchorage, Alaska, January, 1992. $75 donation.

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Two decades
ago, the late R. Buckminster Fuller
proposed interconnecting regional power
systems into a single continuous global electrical
energy grid. • While this vision is still years away, tech-
nological advances have made the linking of international and
inter regional energy networks practicable today. • Transmission
lines allow utilities to level the peaks and valleys of demand. This is
accomplished between East-West time zones, as well as North-South
seasonal variations in demand. • The origin of the energy grid initiative
emerged as the highest priority of the World Game™. Its stated purpose
is “to make the world work for 100% of humanity in the shortest possible
time through spontaneous cooperation without ecological damage or the
disadvantage of anyone.” Research reveals that these major benefits will
result from expanding electrical networks. • Increase in everyone’s stan-
dard of living • Reduction of fossil fuel demand and the resultant pollu-
tion • Relief of the population explosion • Reduction of world hunger
• Enhancement of world trade • Promotion of international
cooperation and peace • The purpose of GENI, Global
Energy Network Institute, is to educate all people,
especially world leaders, to the potential
benefits of this win-win
solution. •

"The Russian/North American interconnection could be the "man on the moon" project for the 90s, but much easier to accomplish with existing technology."

From the Russian/Alaskan delegate summary statement

How can I support GENI?

Updated: 2016/06/30

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